Chapter 2: Adjectives, subject pronouns, present tense, and ser and estar

Vocabulary 1
decir la hora
to tell time
Vocabulary 2
hora de verano
daylight saving time
Vocabulary 3
ser hora de
to be time to
Vocabulary 4
ya es hora
it is about time
Vocabulary 5
a tiempo
on time
Vocabulary 6
al mismo tiempo
at the same time
Vocabulary 7
con tiempo
with time to spare
Vocabulary 8
en muy poco tiempo
in no time
Vocabulary 9
a la vez
at the same time
Vocabulary 10
a veces
at times, sometimes
Vocabulary 11
de vez en cuando
from time to time
Vocabulary 12
las mas veces
most of the time
Vocabulary 13
muchas veces
Vocabulary 14
otra vez
Vocabulary 15
una y otra vez
time after time, over and over again
Grammar 1
Spanish Adjectives
Spanish adjectives agree in number and gender
Grammar 2
Spanish Adjective Endings
Ajectives can use the following endings
  • -o (masculine singular)
  • -a Feminine singular
  • -os masculine plural
  • -as feminine plural
  • and s to adjectives ending is e
  • add es to adjectives ending in es
Grammar 3
Beuno and Malo
bueno and malo can come before a noun. before masculine singular words shorten to mal and buen.
Grammar 4
Subject Pronouns
There are eight subject pronous:
  • yo - I
  • tu - you
  • usted - you (formal)
  • el, ella - he, she
  • nosotros/nosotras - we
  • vosotros/vosotras - you
  • ustedes - you
  • ellos/ellas - they
Grammar 5
Forms of You
tu and vosotros are second person versions of you. usted and ustedes are third person verisons of you. Vosotros is used in spain to address family.
Grammar 6
First person and a compound subject
When a first person pronoun, such as ella, is used as a compound subject, such as ella y yo, use the nosotros form of the verb
Grammar 7
Second Person compound subject
When the subject is made up of the second and third person pronouns, use the vosotros form in spain and ustedes form in latin america
Grammar 8
Present Tense -ar verbs
Regular forms of verbs ending in -ar
  • -o (yo)
  • -as(tu)
  • -a (ella, el, usted)
  • -amos (nosotros)
  • -ais (vosotros,you)
  • -an (ellos, ellas, ustedes, they, you)
Grammar 9
Present Tense -er verbs
Present Tense -er verbs have the following form:
  • -o (yo)
  • -es (tu)
  • -e (el, ella, usted)
  • -emos (nosotros)
  • -eis(vosotros)
  • -en (ellas, ellos, ustedes)
Grammar 10
Present Tense ir verbs
Present Tense -ir verbs have the following forms:
  • -o (yo)
  • -es (tu)
  • -e (el, ella, usted)
  • -imos (nosotros)
  • -is (vosotros)
  • -en (ellos, ellas, ustedes)
Grammar 11
Radical Changing Verbs
comenzar, volver, servir, sentir, dormir are radical changing verbs.
Grammar 12
Ser and Estar
Ser Present Tense
  • soy (yo)
  • eres (tu)
  • es (el, ella, usted)
  • somos (nosotros)
  • sois (vosotros)
  • son (ellas, ellos, ustedes)
  • estoy (yo)
  • estas (tu)
  • esta (el, ella, usted)
  • estamos (nosotros)
  • estais (vosotros)
  • estan (ellas, ellos, ustedes
Grammar 13
Uses of Ser
Ser is used with predicat nouns and words with professions, poltics, religions, and nationalities. De is used with nationalities.
Grammar 14
Es is used with the time 1:00, midnight, and noon. son is used for other hours.
Grammar 15
Ser with adjectives
Ser is used to describe qualities of a noun, such as size, shape
Grammar 16
Ser (to take place) and impersonal
Ser can be used to say (to take place) and impersonal expressions such as 'it's late'
Grammar 17
Esta is used for location, temporary/inherent qualities, with muetro, and to form progressive tense.
Grammar 18
Adjectives that Change with ser and estar
  • aburrido (ser - boring)(estar boring)
  • cansado(ser tiring)(estar - tired)
  • depierto (ser - alert, bright)(awake)
  • divertido (ser amusing)(estar amused)
  • listo (ser witty, clever)(estar ready)
  • malo (ser bad)(estar sick)
  • verde (ser green)(estar unripe)
  • vivo (ser lively, bright color)(estar alive)