Chapter 1: Gender and Number of Nouns, Definite and Indefinte Articles, and prepositions

Vocabulary 1
Ending -dad
This ending is equivalant to the english ending -ty.
Vocabulary 2
Ending -tud
This ending is usually equivalent to english ending tude.
Vocabulary 3
Ending -te
This ending is usually equivalent to english ending t.
Grammar 1
ending -o
Masculine nouns often end in -o in spanish.
Grammar 2
ending -a
Feminine nouns usually have an ending of -a in Spainish.
Grammar 3
Exceptions to the ending -o -a rule for masculine.
Some words ending in -a, -ma, -pa, -ta are masculine. Examples include dia, clima, mapa, planeta, problema, sistema.
Grammar 4
Exceptions to the ending -o -a rule for feminine nouns.
Some nouns that end in -o are feminine. Examples include mano, foto, moto.
Grammar 5
Exceptions that need to be memorized.
Some exceptions must be memorized.
  • clase -f
  • coche -m
  • nariz -f
  • animal -m
  • lech -f
  • dinte -m
  • lapiz -m
  • sarten -m
  • noche -f
  • rifle -m
  • razon -f
  • amor -m
  • tarde
  • vientre -m
  • vintre -m
  • cesped -m
  • reloj -m
Grammar 6
Eceptions -dad, -tad, tud, umbre, ie
Words ending in -dad, -tad, tud, umbre, ie are usually feminine.
Grammar 7
Rules for words relating to people.
Words like king, queen etc are the gender of what they reference.
Grammar 8
Gender of professions.
Professions take the gender of person they are describing.
Grammar 9
Plural of Nouns
  • Add an s to unstressed vowells.
  • Nouns ending in consonants other than s add es.
  • Nouns ending in a stressed vowell with or without s add es.
  • Nouns ending in unstressed vowell and s have the same form in plural and singular.
Grammar 10
The Definite Article
There are four forms of definite articles
  • el (masculine singular)
  • los (masculine plural)
  • la (feminine singular)
  • las (feminine plural)

Definite articles are used with titles. Days of the week require a definite article. Parts of body require a definite article.

Grammar 11
The Indefinite Article
Spainish has an versions of a and an the follow in these forms
  • un masculine singular
  • una feminine singular
  • unos masculine plural
  • unas feminine plural
Grammar 12
Uses of Indefinite Articles
  • used after ser with nationalities, political afflications
  • use them before amounts including cien, media(half), certain (certain).
Grammar 13
Single word propositions
Common Single word propositions.
  • a (to, at, for, by, on, from)
  • hacia (toward, about, near)
  • ante (before, in the prescence of)
  • <
  • hasta (until, to, as far, up to)
  • bajo (under, underneath)
  • menos (except)
  • con (with)
  • para (for, to, toward)
  • contra (against)
  • Por (for, by, by means of, because of, for the sake of)
  • de (of, from, about, with, in)
  • salvo (except)
  • desde (from, since, after)
  • segun (according to)
  • en (in, on, at, by)
  • sin (without)
  • entre
  • sobre (about, on, upon, over)
  • excepto (except)
  • tras (after, behind)
  • tras (after, behind)
Grammar 14
Multiple Word Prepositions
Common multiple word prepositions
  • ademas de (in addition to, besides)
  • despues(after)
  • alredor de (around)
  • detras de(behind, in back of)
  • antes de (before)
  • encima de (on top of)
  • antes de (before)
  • cerca de (near)
  • fuera de (outside of)
  • debajo de (underneath)
  • lejos de (far from)